Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Factors in relation to Overweight Defined by BMI and "normal-Weight Obesity"

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title = "Sociodemographic and Lifestyle Factors in relation to Overweight Defined by BMI and {"}normal-Weight Obesity{"}",
abstract = "Sociodemographic factors and lifestyle habits affect body weight and body composition. A new syndrome, called normal-weight obesity (NWO), is found in individuals with normal weight and excess body fat in contrast to lean and overweight individuals. The aim of the present study was to explore the associations between sociodemographic factors and smoking and alcohol habits and lower versus higher BMI (≥25 kg/m2) and to examine whether categorization into lean, NWO, and overweight leads to further information about sociodemographic and lifestyle associations, compared with the common categorization defined by BMI. A cohort of 17,724 participants (9,936 females, 56.1{\%}) from the EpiHealth study, with a median age of 61 (53-67) years, was examined. The participants answered a questionnaire about lifestyle, and weight and fat percentage were measured. Associations between sociodemographic factors and lifestyle habits and lower versus higher BMI, and lean versus NWO or lean and NWO versus overweight were calculated by binary logistic regression. Male sex, age, sick leave/disability, married/cohabitating, divorced/widowed, former smoking, and a high alcohol consumption were associated with higher BMI, whereas higher education and frequent alcohol consumption were inversely associated (all p<0.001). The associations were similar to associations with lean versus overweight and NWO versus overweight, except for age in the latter case. Associations with lean versus NWO differed from those of lower versus higher BMI, with an association with retirement, an inverse association with male sex (OR, 0.664; 95{\%} confidence interval, 0.591-0.746), and no associations with marital status, smoking, and alcohol consumption frequency. Associations with age and occupation were sex dependent, in contrast to other variables examined. Thus, sociodemographic and lifestyle habits showed similar associations with lower versus higher BMI as with lean and NWO versus overweight, whereas lean versus NWO showed different directions of associations regarding sex, marital status, occupation, smoking, and frequency of alcohol consumption.",
author = "Bodil Ohlsson and Jonas Manjer",
year = "2020",
doi = "10.1155/2020/2070297",
language = "English",
volume = "2020",
journal = "Journal of Obesity",
issn = "2090-0708",
publisher = "Hindawi Limited",