Spinal Cord Injury Enables Aromatic l-Amino Acid Decarboxylase Cells to Synthesize Monoamines.

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Spinal Cord Injury Enables Aromatic l-Amino Acid Decarboxylase Cells to Synthesize Monoamines. / Wienecke, Jacob; Ren, Li-Qun; Hultborn, Hans; Chen, Meng; Møller, Morten; Zhang, Yifan; Zhang, Mengliang.

I: Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 34, Nr. 36, 2014, s. 11984-12000.

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Wienecke, Jacob ; Ren, Li-Qun ; Hultborn, Hans ; Chen, Meng ; Møller, Morten ; Zhang, Yifan ; Zhang, Mengliang. / Spinal Cord Injury Enables Aromatic l-Amino Acid Decarboxylase Cells to Synthesize Monoamines. I: Journal of Neuroscience. 2014 ; Vol. 34, Nr. 36. s. 11984-12000.

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Spinal Cord Injury Enables Aromatic l-Amino Acid Decarboxylase Cells to Synthesize Monoamines.

AU - Wienecke, Jacob

AU - Ren, Li-Qun

AU - Hultborn, Hans

AU - Chen, Meng

AU - Møller, Morten

AU - Zhang, Yifan

AU - Zhang, Mengliang

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Serotonin (5-HT), an important modulator of both sensory and motor functions in the mammalian spinal cord, originates mainly in the raphe nuclei of the brainstem. However, following complete transection of the spinal cord, small amounts of 5-HT remain detectable below the lesion. It has been suggested, but not proven, that this residual 5-HT is produced by intraspinal 5-HT neurons. Here, we show by immunohistochemical techniques that cells containing the enzyme aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) occur not only near the central canal, as reported by others, but also in the intermediate zone and dorsal horn of the spinal gray matter. We show that, following complete transection of the rat spinal cord at S2 level, AADC cells distal to the lesion acquire the ability to produce 5-HT from its immediate precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan. Our results indicate that this phenotypic change in spinal AADC cells is initiated by the loss of descending 5-HT projections due to spinal cord injury (SCI). By in vivo and in vitro electrophysiology, we show that 5-HT produced by AADC cells increases the excitability of spinal motoneurons. The phenotypic change in AADC cells appears to result from a loss of inhibition by descending 5-HT neurons and to be mediated by 5-HT1B receptors expressed by AADC cells. These findings indicate that AADC cells are a potential source of 5-HT at spinal levels below an SCI. The production of 5-HT by AADC cells, together with an upregulation of 5-HT2 receptors, offers a partial explanation of hyperreflexia below a chronic SCI.

AB - Serotonin (5-HT), an important modulator of both sensory and motor functions in the mammalian spinal cord, originates mainly in the raphe nuclei of the brainstem. However, following complete transection of the spinal cord, small amounts of 5-HT remain detectable below the lesion. It has been suggested, but not proven, that this residual 5-HT is produced by intraspinal 5-HT neurons. Here, we show by immunohistochemical techniques that cells containing the enzyme aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) occur not only near the central canal, as reported by others, but also in the intermediate zone and dorsal horn of the spinal gray matter. We show that, following complete transection of the rat spinal cord at S2 level, AADC cells distal to the lesion acquire the ability to produce 5-HT from its immediate precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan. Our results indicate that this phenotypic change in spinal AADC cells is initiated by the loss of descending 5-HT projections due to spinal cord injury (SCI). By in vivo and in vitro electrophysiology, we show that 5-HT produced by AADC cells increases the excitability of spinal motoneurons. The phenotypic change in AADC cells appears to result from a loss of inhibition by descending 5-HT neurons and to be mediated by 5-HT1B receptors expressed by AADC cells. These findings indicate that AADC cells are a potential source of 5-HT at spinal levels below an SCI. The production of 5-HT by AADC cells, together with an upregulation of 5-HT2 receptors, offers a partial explanation of hyperreflexia below a chronic SCI.

U2 - 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3838-13.2014

DO - 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3838-13.2014

M3 - Article

VL - 34

SP - 11984

EP - 12000

JO - The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

JF - The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience

SN - 1529-2401

IS - 36

ER -