Structural Dynamics of a V2O5/SnO2 Catalyst in the Ammoxidation of 3-Picoline
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The influence of the reaction parameters on the conversion of 3-picoline and the yield of nicotinonitrile in the ammoxidation of 3-picoline on a View the MathML source catalyst was studied. The highest yield of nicotinonitrile was 82%. This was obtained at 400 °C, with a space velocity of 4000 h−1 and the following mole ratios: ammonia/3-picoline = 12, air/3-picoline = 210, and water vapour/3-picoline = 40. It was found that the composition of the surface of the catalyst depended strongly on the values of the reaction parameters. The dynamic structure of the catalyst surface was studied by determining the phases present by X-ray diffraction analysis and the average oxidation number of vanadium by titrimetric methods. These results were correlated, showing that catalysts with both V2O5 and V6O13 were especially active and selective. The composition of the SnO2 phase was analyzed and was found to be V0.03Sn0.97O2, and did not depend on the reaction parameters. Infrared investigations showed that the role of SnO2 was to weaken the short VO bonds. This can probably be seen as a consequence of incorporation of Sn4+ in the V2O5 lattice.