Sympathetic and parasympathetic neuropathy are frequent in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients.

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Bibtex

@article{9304e979b6394cf3aa7cd03db535349d,
title = "Sympathetic and parasympathetic neuropathy are frequent in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients.",
abstract = "OBJECTIVE—The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of sympathetic versus parasympathetic neuropathy among type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—There were 43 patients with type 1 and 17 with type 2 diabetes who were investigated. Sympathetic nerve function was assessed by measurement of the vasoconstriction (VAC) index by laser Doppler perfusion imaging of a locally heated finger followed by indirect cooling. Parasympathetic nerve function was assessed by R-R interval variation during deep breathing as measured by the expiration/inspiration (E/I) ratio. Results were expressed as age-corrected z scores in SD; VAC index >1.64 SD and E/I ratio <−1.64 SD were considered abnormal. RESULTS—VAC index was abnormal in 40{\%} with type 1 and 41{\%} with type 2 diabetes, whereas the E/I ratio was abnormal in 42{\%} with type 1 and 65{\%} with type 2 diabetes. There was a clear association between VAC index and E/I ratio among type 1 (rs = 0.525; P = 0.0002) but not among type 2 (rs = 0.10) diabetic patients. Among type 2 diabetic patients, the degree of dysfunction was most severe regarding parasympathetic function (P = 0.0167). CONCLUSIONS—Sympathetic and parasympathetic neuropathy were frequent in both type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients. However, there was a difference between the two types of diabetes. Sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve functions correlated in type 1 but not in type 2 diabetic patients. The explanation for this discrepancy might be that parasympathetic nerve function was most severely affected among type 2 diabetic patients.",
author = "Carolin Freccero and Henry Svensson and Per Wollmer and G{\"o}ran Sundkvist",
year = "2004",
doi = "10.2337/diacare.27.12.2936",
language = "English",
volume = "27",
pages = "2936--2941",
journal = "Diabetes Reviews",
issn = "1935-5548",
publisher = "American Diabetes Association",
number = "12",

}