Synthesis of novel oligomeric anionic alkyl glycosides using laccase/TEMPO oxidation and cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase)‐catalysed transglycosylation
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Modification of alkyl glycosides, to alter their properties and widen the scope of potential applications, is of considerable interest. Here, we report the synthesis of new anionic alkyl glycosides with long carbohydrate chains, using two different approaches: laccase/TEMPO oxidation of a long‐carbohydrate‐chain alkyl glycoside, and cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase)‐catalysed elongation of anionic alkyl glycosides. The laccase/TEMPO oxidation of dodecyl β‐D‐maltooctaoside proceeded efficiently with the formation of aldehyde and acid products. However, depolymerization occurred to a large extent, limiting the product yield and purity. On the other hand, CGTase‐catalysed coupling/disproportionation reactions with α‐cyclodextrin and dodecyl β‐D‐maltoside diuronic acid (DDM‐2COOH) or octyl β‐D‐glucuronic acid (OG‐COOH) as substrates gave high conversions, especially when the CGTase Toruzyme was used. It was found that pH had a strong influence on both the enzyme activity and the acceptor specificity. With non‐ionic substrates (dodecyl β‐D‐maltoside and octyl β‐D‐glucoside), Toruzyme exhibited high catalytic activity at pH 5‐6, but for the acidic substrates (DDM‐2COOH and OG‐COOH) the activity was highest at pH 4. This is most likely due to the enzyme favoring the protonated forms of DDM‐2COOH and OG‐COOH, which exist at lower pH (pKa about 3).