Systematics of Pipizini and taxonomy of European Pipiza Fallen: molecular and morphological evidence (Diptera, Syrphidae)
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Vuji, A., Stahls, G., Aanski, J., Bartsch, H., Bygebjerg, R. & Stefanovi, A. (2013). Systematics of Pipizini and taxonomy of European Pipiza Fallen: molecular and morphological evidence (Diptera, Syrphidae). Zoologica Scripta, 42, 288305. In the present work the monophyly and molecular phylogenetic relationships of the genera of tribe Pipizini (Syrphidae) were investigated based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and nuclear 28S rDNA sequences, and the relationships among species of genus Pipiza Fallen, 1810 based on mtDNA COI sequences. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of Pipizini supported Pipiza as monophyletic and as sister group to all other Pipizini, and resolved other Pipizini genera as monophyletic lineages except for genus Heringia Rondani, 1856. To recognize the distinctness and maintain the monophyly the genus Heringia was redefined, generic rank was assigned to Neocnemodon Goffe, 1944 stat. n., and the genus Claussenia Vuji & Stahls gen. n., type-species Claussenia hispanica (Strobl, 1909), was described. A revision of the European Pipiza species, including a discussion of taxonomic characters and a morphological redefinition of all included species, is presented. One new species, Pipiza laurusi Vuji & Stahls sp. n. was described. The taxa Pipiza carbonaria Meigen, 1822; Pipiza fasciata, Meigen 1822; Pipiza lugubris (Fabricius, 1775), Pipiza noctiluca (Linneaues, 1758), Pipiza notata Meigen, 1822 were redefined. Lectotypes are designated for 17 taxa, and neotypes were designated for seven taxa. Fourteen new synonymies were proposed. Male genitalia were illustrated for all the species, and a key of the 12 European species for males and females was provided. Geometric morphometrics of wing landmarks and extended sampling of mtDNA COI sequences was employed to delimitate taxa of the P.noctiluca and P.lugubris complexes. Despite subtle morphological differences, wing geometric morphometrics variables of wing size and shape showed highly significant differences among species within P.noctiluca and P.lugubris complexes, which were supported by the molecular data.