Tea and coffee consumption and risk of esophageal cancer: The European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study

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title = "Tea and coffee consumption and risk of esophageal cancer: The European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study",
abstract = "Epidemiological data regarding tea and coffee consumption and risk of esophageal cancer (EC) is still inconclusive. We examined the association of tea and coffee consumption with EC risk among 442,143 men and women without cancer at baseline from 9 countries of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Tea and coffee intakes were recorded using country-specific validated dietary questionnaires. Cox regression models were used to analyze the relationships between tea and coffee intake and EC risk. During a mean follow-up of 11.1 years, 339 participants developed EC, of which 142 were esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and 174 were esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In the multivariable models, no significant associations between tea (mostly black tea), and coffee intake and risk of EC, EAC and ESCC were observed. In stratified analyses, among men coffee consumption was inversely related to ESCC (HR for comparison of extreme tertiles 0.42, 95{\%} CI 0.20-0.88; p-trend = 0.022), but not among women. In current smokers, a significant and inverse association was observed between ESCC risk and tea (HR 0.46, 95{\%} CI 0.23-0.93; p-trend = 0.053) and coffee consumption (HR 0.37, 95{\%} CI 0.19-0.73; p-trend = 0.011). However, no statistically significant findings were observed using the continuous variable (per 100 mL/d). These data did not show a significant association between tea and coffee consumption and EC, EAC and ESCC, although a decreased risk of ESCC among men and current smokers is suggested, but need to be confirmed in further prospective studies including more cases.",
keywords = "tea, coffee, esophageal cancer, smoking status, EPIC",
author = "Raul Zamora-Ros and Leila Lujan-Barroso and Bueno-de-Mesquita, {H. B(as)} and Dik, {Vincent K.} and Heiner Boeing and Annika Steffen and Anne Tjonneland and Anja Olsen and Bech, {Bodil Hammer} and Kim Overvad and Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault and Antoine Racine and Guy Fagherazzi and Tilman Kuhn and Verena Katzke and Antonia Trichopoulou and Pagona Lagiou and Dimitrios Trichopoulos and Rosario Tumino and Salvatore Panico and Paolo Vineis and Sara Grioni and Domenico Palli and Elisabete Weiderpass and Guri Skeie and {Maria Huerta}, Jose and Maria-Jose Sanchez and Marcial Argueelles and Pilar Amiano and Eva Ardanaz and Lena Nilsson and Bengt Wallner and Bjorn Lindkvist and Peter Wallstr{\"o}m and Peeters, {Petra H. M.} and Key, {Timothy J.} and Kay-Thee Khaw and Wareham, {Nicholas J.} and Heinz Freisling and Magdalena Stepien and Pietro Ferrari and Gunter, {Marc J.} and Neil Murphy and Elio Riboli and Gonzalez, {Carlos A.}",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.1002/ijc.28789",
language = "English",
volume = "135",
pages = "1470--1479",
journal = "Acta - Unio Internationalis Contra Cancrum",
issn = "0020-7136",
publisher = "John Wiley & Sons",
number = "6",