The anti-tumor effect of the quinoline-3-carboxamide tasquinimod: Blockade of recruitment of CD11b+ Ly6Chi cells to tumor tissue reduces tumor growth
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Background: Previous work has demonstrated immunomodulatory, anti-tumor, anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic effects of the small molecule quinoline-3-carboxamide tasquinimod in pre-clinical cancer models. To better understand the anti-tumor effects of tasquinimod in transplantable tumor models, we have evaluated the impact of the compound both on recruitment of myeloid cells to tumor tissue and on tumor-induced myeloid cell expansion as these cells are known to promote tumor development. Methods: Mice bearing subcutaneous 4 T1 mammary carcinoma tumors were treated with tasquinimod in the drinking water. A BrdU-based flow cytometry assay was utilized to assess the impact of short-term tasquinimod treatment on myeloid cell recruitment to tumors. Additionally, long-term treatment was performed to study the anti-tumor effect of tasquinimod as well as its effects on splenic myeloid cells and their progenitors. Myeloid cell populations were also immune-depleted by in vivo antibody treatment. Results: Short-term tasquinimod treatment did not influence the proliferation of splenic Ly6Chi and Ly6Ghi cells, but instead reduced the influx of Ly6Chi cells to the tumor. Treatment with tasquinimod for various periods of time after tumor inoculation revealed that the anti-tumor effect of this compound mainly operated during the first few days of tumor growth. Similar to tasquinimod treatment, antibody-mediated depletion of Ly6Chi cells within that same time frame, caused reduced tumor growth, thereby confirming a significant role for these cells in tumor development. Additionally, long-term tasquinimod treatment reduced the splenomegaly and expansion of splenic myeloid cells during a later phase of tumor development. In this phase, tasquinimod normalized the tumor-induced alterations in myeloerythroid progenitor cells in the spleen but had only limited impact on the same populations in the bone marrow. Conclusions: Our results indicate that tasquinimod treatment reduces tumor growth by operating early after tumor inoculation and that this effect is at least partially caused by reduced recruitment of Ly6Chi cells to tumor tissue. Long-term treatment also reduces the number of splenic myeloid cells and myeloerythroid progenitors, but these effects did not influence established rapidly growing tumors.
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Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ) – OBLIGATORISK
|Status||Published - 2016 jul 11|
|Peer review utförd||Ja|