The causal nature of the association between resting pulse in late adolescence and risk for internalizing and externalizing disorders: A co-relative analysis in a national male Swedish sample

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift

Standard

Harvard

APA

CBE

MLA

Vancouver

Author

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - The causal nature of the association between resting pulse in late adolescence and risk for internalizing and externalizing disorders

T2 - A co-relative analysis in a national male Swedish sample

AU - Kendler, Kenneth S.

AU - Lönn, Sara L.

AU - Sundquist, Jan

AU - Sundquist, Kristina

PY - 2020/3/24

Y1 - 2020/3/24

N2 - BackgroundResting pulse is robustly and inversely associated with the risk for externalizing disorders and may be positively associated with internalizing disorders. We know little about the causal nature of these associations.MethodsWe examined resting pulse at conscription examination in 369 301 males born 1960-80 with a mean (s.d.) follow-up of 29.1 (7.7) years. From pulse rates, we predicted, using Cox models, the risk for criminal behavior (CB), drug abuse (DA), alcohol use disorder (AUD), major depression (MD), and anxiety disorders (AD), assessed from medical, criminal, and pharmacy registries. Co-relative analyses were conducted on the general population, cousin, half-sibling, full-sibling, and monozygotic pairs discordant for the outcome. Twin/sibling modeling for pulse was performed using OpenMX.ResultsFamilial resemblance for pulse resulted entirely from genetic factors. In the general population, the risk for externalizing disorders (CB, DA, and AUD) and internalizing disorders (MD and AD) were, respectively, significantly associated with low and high resting pulse rate. For CB, DA, and AUD, co-relative analyses showed that the inverse association with pulse resulted entirely from familial common causes (aka 'confounders'). By contrast, co-relative analyses found that the association between higher pulse and MD and AD resulted from direct causal effects.ConclusionsResting pulse has a negative and positive association with, respectively, the risk for externalizing and for internalizing disorders. Co-relative analyses indicate that the nature of these associations differ, suggesting that elevated pulse appears to directly increase the risk for internalizing disorders while the reduced pulse is a risk index for underlying traits that predispose to externalizing disorders.

AB - BackgroundResting pulse is robustly and inversely associated with the risk for externalizing disorders and may be positively associated with internalizing disorders. We know little about the causal nature of these associations.MethodsWe examined resting pulse at conscription examination in 369 301 males born 1960-80 with a mean (s.d.) follow-up of 29.1 (7.7) years. From pulse rates, we predicted, using Cox models, the risk for criminal behavior (CB), drug abuse (DA), alcohol use disorder (AUD), major depression (MD), and anxiety disorders (AD), assessed from medical, criminal, and pharmacy registries. Co-relative analyses were conducted on the general population, cousin, half-sibling, full-sibling, and monozygotic pairs discordant for the outcome. Twin/sibling modeling for pulse was performed using OpenMX.ResultsFamilial resemblance for pulse resulted entirely from genetic factors. In the general population, the risk for externalizing disorders (CB, DA, and AUD) and internalizing disorders (MD and AD) were, respectively, significantly associated with low and high resting pulse rate. For CB, DA, and AUD, co-relative analyses showed that the inverse association with pulse resulted entirely from familial common causes (aka 'confounders'). By contrast, co-relative analyses found that the association between higher pulse and MD and AD resulted from direct causal effects.ConclusionsResting pulse has a negative and positive association with, respectively, the risk for externalizing and for internalizing disorders. Co-relative analyses indicate that the nature of these associations differ, suggesting that elevated pulse appears to directly increase the risk for internalizing disorders while the reduced pulse is a risk index for underlying traits that predispose to externalizing disorders.

KW - Causal inference

KW - externalizing disorders

KW - internalizing disorders

KW - pulse

U2 - 10.1017/S0033291720000549

DO - 10.1017/S0033291720000549

M3 - Article

C2 - 32204740

AN - SCOPUS:85082316776

JO - Psychological Medicine

JF - Psychological Medicine

SN - 1469-8978

ER -