The determination of ecological status in shallow lakes - a tested system (ECOFRAME) for implementation of the European Water Framework Directive

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title = "The determination of ecological status in shallow lakes - a tested system (ECOFRAME) for implementation of the European Water Framework Directive",
abstract = "1. The European Water Framework Directive requires the determination of ecological status in European fresh and saline waters. This is to be through the establishment of a typology of surface water bodies, the determination of reference (high status) conditions in each element (ecotype) of the typology and of lower grades of status (good, moderate, poor and bad) for each ecotype. It then requires classification of the status of the water bodies and their restoration to at least 'good status' in a specified period. 2. Though there are many methods for assessing water quality, none has the scope of that defined in the Directive. The provisions of the Directive require a wide range of variables to be measured and give only general guidance as to how systems of classification should be established. This raises issues of comparability across States and of the costs of making the determinations. 3. Using expert workshops and subsequent field testing, a practicable pan-European typology and classification system has been developed for shallow lakes, which can easily be extended to all lakes. It is parsimonious in its choice of determinands, but based on current limnological understanding and therefore as cost-effective as possible. 4. A core typology is described, which can be expanded easily in particular States to meet local conditions. The core includes 48 ecotypes across the entire European climate gradient and incorporates climate, lake area, geology of the catchment and conductivity. 5. The classification system is founded on a liberal interpretation of Annexes in the Directive and uses variables that are inexpensive to measure and ecologically relevant. The need for taxonomic expertise is minimized. 6. The scheme has been through eight iterations, two of which were tested in the field on tranches of 66 lakes. The final version, Version 8, is offered for operational testing and further refinement by statutory authorities.",
author = "B Moss and D Stephen and C Alvarez and E Becares and {Van de Bund}, W and SE Collings and {Van Donk}, E and {De Eyto}, E and T Feldmann and C Fernandez-Alaez and M Fernandez-Alaez and RJM Franken and F Garcia-Criado and EM Gross and Mikael Gyllstr{\"o}m and Lars-Anders Hansson and K Irvine and A J{\"a}rvalt and JP Jensen and E Jeppesen and T Kairesalo and R Kornijow and T Krause and H Kunnap and A Laas and E Lille and B Lorens and H Luup and MR Miracle and P Noges and T Noges and M Nyk{\"a}nen and I Ott and W Peczula and ETHM Peeters and G Phillips and S Romo and V Russell and J Salujoe and M Scheffer and K Siewertsen and H Smal and C Tesch and H Timm and L Tuvikene and I Tonno and T Virro and E Vicente and D Wilson",
year = "2003",
doi = "10.1002/aqc.592",
language = "English",
volume = "13",
pages = "507--549",
journal = "Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems",
issn = "1052-7613",
publisher = "John Wiley & Sons",
number = "6",