The function of alpha-crystalline emulsifiers on expanding foam surfaces
Forskningsoutput: Tidskriftsbidrag › Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift
The expanding capacity and the stabilizing function of an alpha-crystalline emulsifier on the bubble surfaces during and after expansion of a sugar foam were examined by volume measurements, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), freeze-etching and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and oscillatory theological measurements. 0.2-10% (w/w) emulsifier, either a polyglycerol ester mixed with monoglycerides (PGE/MG) in alpha-gel form or sodium oleate in micellar form, was mixed into a 65% sucrose solution in a specially designed vessel at a pressure of 1-5 bar. The foam produced was expanded to ambient pressure before measurements were made. The total volume of the foam was shown to increase proportionally to the expansion with both emulsifiers. With PGE/MG, small bubbles were produced (1-4 mum). With oleate, the bubbles became much larger (5-25 mum) and more coalescence could be observed. The storage modulus of the foam was shown to depend on the bubble sizes, the volume fraction of air and also the emulsifier. The foam stabilized with PGE/MG was stiff at a high concentration of emulsifier, while the micelle forming emulsifier remained more liquid-like. A possible explanation was that the alpha-crystalline PGE/MG emulsifier formed aggregates and caused an attractive bridging interaction between the bubbles, which resulted in a higher storage modulus. The micellar oleate did not cause any bubble bridging. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.