The pleiotropic role of proteoglycans in extracellular vesicle mediated communication in the tumor microenvironment

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title = "The pleiotropic role of proteoglycans in extracellular vesicle mediated communication in the tumor microenvironment",
abstract = "Compartmental exchange between cells through extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, has emerged as a central mechanism that coordinates the complex communication between malignant and stromal cells during tumor initiation and evolution. Some of the most critical processes of EV-mediated communication, including EV biogenesis and EV uptake, can be mediated by heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) that reside on the surface of producer and recipient cells as well as on EVs. With interestingly similar, HSPG-dependent, pathways as the ones exploited by some viruses, EVs may, in an evolutionary perspective, be viewed as endogenous counterparts of viral particles. Cancer cell-derived EVs exert their protumorigenic effects by direct interactions of biologically active surface molecules, by transfer of proteins and nucleic acids into recipient cells or by transfer of metabolites that can be utilized as an energy source by the recipient cell. Here, we discuss the pleiotropic role of the HSPG family in these different contexts of EV communication with a specific focus on tumor development. We propose EV-associated PGs as dynamic reservoirs and chaperones of signaling molecules with potential implications in ligand exchange between EVs and tumor target cells. The protumorigenic consequences of EV mediated communication through HSPG should motivate the development of therapeutic approaches targeting EV-HSPG interactions as a novel strategy in cancer treatment.",
keywords = "Cancer, Exosomes, Extracellular vesicles, Proteoglycans",
author = "M. Cerezo-Maga{\~n}a and A. B{\aa}ng-Rudenstam and M. Belting",
year = "2019",
month = "7",
day = "2",
doi = "10.1016/j.semcancer.2019.07.001",
language = "English",
journal = "Seminars in Cancer Biology",
issn = "1096-3650",
publisher = "Academic Press",