Total chemical synthesis and NMR characterization of the glycopeptide tx5a, a heavily post-translationally modified conotoxin, reveals that the glycan structure is alpha-D-Gal-(1 -> 3)-alpha-D-GalNAc

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The 13-amino acid glycopeptide tx5a (Gla-Cys-Cys-Gla-Asp-Gly-Trp*-Cys-Cys-Thr*-Ala-Ala-Hyp-OH, where Trp* = 6-bromotryptophan and Thr* = Gal-GalNAc-threonine), isolated from Conus textile, causes hyperactivity and spasticity when injected intracerebral ventricularly into mice. It contains nine post-translationally modified residues: four cysteine residues, two gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues, and one residue each of 6-bromotryptophan, 4-trans-hydroxyproline and glycosylated threonine. The chemical nature of each of these has been determined with the exception of the glycan linkage pattern on threonine and the stereochemistry of the 6-bromotryptophan residue. Previous investigations have demonstrated that tx5a contains a disaccharide composed of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) and galactose (Gal), but the interresidue linkage was not characterized. We hypothesized that tx5a contained the T-antigen, beta-D-Gal-(1-->3)-alpha-D-GalNAc, one of the most common O-linked glycan structures, identified previously in another Conus glycopeptide, contalukin-G. We therefore utilized the peracetylated form of this glycan attached to Fmoc-threonine in an attempted synthesis. While the result-ing synthetic peptide (Gla-Cys-Cys-Gla-Asp-Gly-Trp*-Cys-Cys-Thr*-Ala-Ala-Hyp-OH, where Trp* =6-bromotryptophan and Thr* = beta-D-Gal-(1-->3)-alpha-D-GalNAc-threonine) and the native peptide had almost identical mass spectra, a comparison of their RP-HPLC chromatograms suggested that the two forms were not identical. Two-dimensional H-1 homonuclear and C-13-H-1 heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy of native tx5a isolated from Conus textile was then used to determine that the glycan present on tx5a indeed is not the aforementioned T-antigen, but rather alpha-D-Gal-(1-->3)-alpha-D-GalNAc.


  • J Kang
  • W Low
  • T Norberg
  • J Meisenhelder
  • Karin M Hansson
  • Johan Stenflo
  • GP Zhou
  • J Imperial
  • BM Olivera
  • AC Rigby
  • AG Craig
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Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ) – OBLIGATORISK

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Sidor (från-till)4939-4949
TidskriftEuropean Journal of Biochemistry
Utgåva nummer23-24
StatusPublished - 2004
Peer review utfördJa