Towards a molecular phylogeny of the fungus gnat genus Boletina (Diptera: Mycetophilidae)
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Boletina is a species rich genus of fungus gnats (Diptera: Mycetophilidae) with a mainly Holarctic distribution. The systematics within the genus has gained little attention and this is a first attempt to shed some light over the systematics of Boletina and to test the segregation of the genera Saigusaia and Aglaomyia from Boletina. The nuclear marker 28S and mitochondrial 16S, COI and CytB were amplified and sequenced for 23 taxa that were analysed separately and together with a broad sample of outgroup taxa obtained from GenBank, where also 18S sequences were added. Phylogenies were estimated using maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference and parsimony. We strengthen the hypothesized sister-group relationship between Docosia and Boletina, but the genus Boletina as currently delimited appears to be paraphyletic and nested in a clade together with Aglaomyia, Coelosia and Gnoriste. The genus Saigusaia, on the other hand, seems to be well separated from Boletina. The Boletina erythropyga species group is consistently found as a distinct basal clade within Boletina s.l. The results obtained are otherwise ambiguous both for the taxa in focus and in some analyses globally with a statistically supported total breakdown of the traditional higher classification into tribes, subfamilies and even families. Interestingly, this breakdown almost disappeared when additional 18S sequences were added.