Two-dimensional graphene paper supported flexible enzymatic fuel cells

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Application of enzymatic biofuel cells (EBFCs) in wearable or implantable biomedical devices requires flexible and biocompatible electrode materials. To this end, freestanding and low-cost graphene paper is emerging among the most promising support materials. In this work, we have exploited the potential of using graphene paper with a two-dimensional active surface (2D-GP) as a carrier for enzyme immobilization to fabricate EBFCs, representing the first case of flexible graphene papers directly used in EBFCs. The 2D-GP electrodes were prepared via the assembly of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets into a paper-like architecture, followed by reduction to form layered and cross-linked networks with good mechanical strength, high conductivity and little dependence on the degree of mechanical bending. 2D-GP electrodes served as both a current collector and an enzyme loading substrate that can be used directly as a bioanode and biocathode. Pyrroloquinoline quinone dependent glucose dehydrogenase (PQQ-GDH) and bilirubin oxidase (BOx) adsorbed on the 2D-GP electrodes both retain their biocatalytic activities. Electron transfer (ET) at the bioanode required Meldola blue (MB) as an ET mediator to shuttle electrons between PQQ-GDH and the electrode, but direct electron transfer (DET) at the biocathode was achieved. The resulting glucose/oxygen EBFC displayed a notable mechanical flexibility, with a wide open circuit voltage range up to 0.665 V and a maximum power density of approximately 4 μW cm-2 both fully competitive with reported values for related EBFCs, and with mechanical flexibility and facile enzyme immobilization as novel merits.


  • Fei Shen
  • Dmitry Pankratov
  • Arnab Halder
  • Xinxin Xiao
  • Miguel D. Toscano
  • Jingdong Zhang
  • Jens Ulstrup
  • Lo Gorton
  • Qijin Chi
Enheter & grupper
Externa organisationer
  • Technical University of Denmark
  • Novozymes A/S

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ) – OBLIGATORISK

  • Materialkemi
Sidor (från-till)2562-2570
Antal sidor9
TidskriftNanoscale Advances
Utgåva nummer7
StatusPublished - 2019
Peer review utfördJa