Vehicular channel characterization and its implications for wireless system design and performance

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title = "Vehicular channel characterization and its implications for wireless system design and performance",
abstract = "To make transportation safer, more efficient, and less harmful to the environment, traffic telematics services are currently being intensely investigated and developed. Such services require dependable wireless vehicle-to-infrastructure and vehicle-to-vehicle communications providing robust connectivity at moderate data rates. The development of such dependable vehicular communication systems and standards requires accurate models for the propagation channel in all relevant environments and scenarios. Key characteristics of vehicular channels are shadowing by other vehicles, high Doppler shifts, and inherent non-stationarity, which have major impact on the data packet transmission reliability and latency. This paper provides an overview of the existing vehicular channel measurements in a variety of important environments, and the observed channel characteristics (such as delay spreads and Doppler spreads) therein.We briefly discuss the available vehicular channel models and their respective merits and deficiencies. Finally, we discuss the implications for wireless system design with a strong focus on IEEE 802.11p. On the road towards a dependable vehicular network, room for improvements in coverage, reliability, scalability, and delay are highlighted which require evolutionary improvements in the IEEE 802.11p standard. Multiple antennas at the on-board units and road-side units are recommended to exploit spatial diversity for increased diversity and reliability. Evolutionary improvements in the PHY and MAC are required to yield dependable systems. Extensive references are provided.",
keywords = "radio channel characterization, vehicular communications, IEEE 802.11p, OFDM, MIMO, intelligent transportsystems",
author = "Christoph Mecklenbr{\"a}uker and Andreas Molisch and Johan K{\aa}redal and Fredrik Tufvesson and Alexander Paier and Laura Bernad{\'o} and Thomas Zemen and Oliver Klemp and Nicolai Czink",
year = "2011",
doi = "10.1109/JPROC.2010.2101990",
language = "English",
volume = "99",
pages = "1189--1212",
journal = "Proceedings of the IEEE",
issn = "0018-9219",
publisher = "IEEE Press",
number = "7",