VIP (vasoactive intestinal polypeptide)--immunoreactive innervation of the portal vein
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Nerve fibres displaying immunoreactivity for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) were found in the wall of the portal vein in cats, guinea pigs, rats and mice. In whole-mount preparations a sparse network of VIP fibres was seen in the vessel wall. Electrical field stimulation of the rat portal vein in vitro caused a significant release of VIP. The results suggest that VIP ergic nerve fibres play a role in the regulation of portal blood flow.