Vitamin D, parathyroid hormone and the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older European men

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title = "Vitamin D, parathyroid hormone and the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older European men",
abstract = "Objectives: Low serum 25-hydroxyviatmin D (25(OH)D) and elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels have been linked to insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components. Data in healthy, community-dwelling Europeans are lacking, and previous studies have not excluded subjects receiving drug treatments that may distort the relationship between 25(OH)D/PTH and MetS. The aim of our analysis was to examine the association of 25(OH)D and PTH with Adult Treatment Panel III-defined MetS in middle-aged and older European men Design: This was a population-based, cross-sectional study of 3369 men aged 40-79 years enrolled in the European Male Ageing Study. Results After exclusion of subjects with missing data. 3069 men with a mean (+/- S.D.) age of 60 +/- 11 years were included in the analysis. Age-adjusted 25(OH)D levels were inversely associated with waist circumference, systolic blood pressure (BP), triglycerides, and glucose (all P < 0.01) Age-adjusted PTH levels were only associated with waist and diastolic BP (both P < 0.05). After adjusting for age, centre, season and lifestyle factors the odds for MetS decreased across increasing 25(OH)D quintiles (odds ratios 0.48 (95{\%} confidence intervals 0.36-0.64) highest versus lowest quintile. P-trend < 0.001). This relationship was unchanged after adjustment for PTH, but was attenuated after additional adjustment for homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (0.60 (0.47-0.78) P-trend < 0.001) There was no association between PTH and MetS. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate an inverse relationship between 25(OH)D levels and MetS, which is independent of several confounders and PTH. The relationship is partly explained by insulin resistance. The clinical significance of these observations warrants further study",
author = "Lee, {David M.} and Rutter, {Martin K.} and O'Neill, {Terrence W.} and Steven Boonen and Dirk Vandershueren and Roger Bouillon and Gyorgy Bartfai and Casanueva, {Felipe F.} and Finn, {Joseph D.} and Gianni Forti and Aleksander Giwercman and Han, {Thang S.} and Huhtamemi, {Ilpo T.} and Krzysztof Kula and Lean, {Micheal E. J.} and Neil Pendleton and Margus Punab and Silman, {Alan J.} and Hu, {Frederick C. W.}",
year = "2009",
doi = "10.1530/EJE-09-0496",
language = "English",
volume = "161",
pages = "947--954",
journal = "European Journal of Endocrinology",
issn = "1479-683X",
publisher = "Society of the European Journal of Endocrinology",
number = "6",