Wartenberg pendulum test: objective quantification of muscle tone in children with spastic diplegia undergoing selective dorsal rhizotomy.

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T1 - Wartenberg pendulum test: objective quantification of muscle tone in children with spastic diplegia undergoing selective dorsal rhizotomy.

AU - Nordmark, Eva

AU - Andersson, Gert

N1 - The information about affiliations in this record was updated in December 2015. The record was previously connected to the following departments: Clinical Neurophysiology (013013001), Division of Physiotherapy (Closed 2012) (013042000)

PY - 2002

Y1 - 2002

N2 - The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and sensitivity of the Wartenberg pendulum test for quantification of muscle tone in young children with spastic diplegia undergoing selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR). Fourteen nondisabled children (mean age of 5.5 years, age range 2.3 to 8.8 years, one female and one male in each year) were tested twice. Twenty children with spastic diplegia (12 males, eight females; mean age of 4.3 years, age range 2.5 to 6.3 years) consecutively selected for SDR, were assessed before and 6 months after SDR. Parameters of the pendulum test: R2, R1, maximal velocity, and swing time were correlated with clinical assessments for spasticity (modified Ashworth scale, quadriceps reflex) and measurements of gross motor function: the Gross Motor Function Classification System and the Gross Motor Function Measure. The Wartenberg pendulum test was found to be an objective and sensitive method for quantifying spasticity in knee extensor muscles in children as young as 2.5 years old. The method was responsive to changes after SDR. The only correlation with clinical measurements of spasticity was between the R2 ratio and the quadriceps reflex. Swing time was the most reliable and sensitive variable; it showed a weak correlation with measurements for gross motor function.

AB - The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and sensitivity of the Wartenberg pendulum test for quantification of muscle tone in young children with spastic diplegia undergoing selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR). Fourteen nondisabled children (mean age of 5.5 years, age range 2.3 to 8.8 years, one female and one male in each year) were tested twice. Twenty children with spastic diplegia (12 males, eight females; mean age of 4.3 years, age range 2.5 to 6.3 years) consecutively selected for SDR, were assessed before and 6 months after SDR. Parameters of the pendulum test: R2, R1, maximal velocity, and swing time were correlated with clinical assessments for spasticity (modified Ashworth scale, quadriceps reflex) and measurements of gross motor function: the Gross Motor Function Classification System and the Gross Motor Function Measure. The Wartenberg pendulum test was found to be an objective and sensitive method for quantifying spasticity in knee extensor muscles in children as young as 2.5 years old. The method was responsive to changes after SDR. The only correlation with clinical measurements of spasticity was between the R2 ratio and the quadriceps reflex. Swing time was the most reliable and sensitive variable; it showed a weak correlation with measurements for gross motor function.

KW - Preschool

KW - Diagnostic Techniques

KW - Neurological

KW - Female

KW - Ganglia

KW - Spinal/surgery

KW - Human

KW - Infant

KW - Knee Joint/physiology

KW - Male

KW - Movement

KW - Muscle

KW - Skeletal/physiology

KW - Reproducibility of Results

KW - Predictive Value of Tests

KW - Sensitivity and Specificity

KW - Rhizotomy

KW - Child

KW - Support

KW - Non-U.S. Gov't

KW - Treatment Outcome

KW - Cerebral Palsy/classification/pathology/surgery

U2 - 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2002.tb00255.x

DO - 10.1111/j.1469-8749.2002.tb00255.x

M3 - Article

VL - 44

SP - 26

EP - 33

JO - Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology

JF - Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology

SN - 0012-1622

IS - 1

ER -