BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Fractures can be prevented if osteoporosis is identified and treated. Starting in 2002, we have been using a screening program in which patients between 50 and 75 years of age with a wrist, shoulder, vertebral, or hip fracture are assessed by DEXA of the hip and spine and if osteoporotic or osteopenic, they are encouraged to see a doctor of their own choice. The patients receive documents containing information, the results of DEXA, and a letter to present to their doctor with suggestions regarding blood tests and treatment. Here we report the 3-year follow-up regarding compliance to the recommended treatment. METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to fracture patients who participated in the initial screening study from November 2002 through November 2003. Questions included whether they had seen a doctor, whether treatment had been initiated, and their opinions about osteoporosis. RESULTS: 215 of the 236 patients answered the questionnaire, with a mean follow-up of 39 months. 76/87 of those with osteoporosis, 70/99 of those with osteopenia, and 11/29 of those with normal BMD had seen a doctor. Anti-resorptive treatment was prescribed to two-thirds of the osteoporotic patients, to one-sixth of the osteopenic patients, and to none of the patients with normal bone density. Calcium-vitamin D supplementation as monotherapy was given to one-third of the osteoporotic patients, to half of the osteopenic patients, and to half of the normal patients. Only a few osteoporotic patients, one-third of the osteopenic patients, and half of the normal patients received no treatment. Compliance to treatment was 80% over 3 years in those treated. Most patients felt that they could influence their skeletal health. INTERPRETATION: Screening of fracture patients for osteoporosis effectively identifies patients with low bone mineral density and the patient can be trusted to seek appropriate medical advice for treatment of osteoporosis. Based on the bone scan diagnosis, the treatment that these patients received reflects current treatment guidelines well.