Antibiotic residues are being continuously recognized in the aquatic environment and in food. Though the concentration of antibiotic residues is typically low, adverse effects on the environment and human health have been observed. Hence, an efficient method to determine numerous antibiotic residues should be simple, inexpensive, selective, with high throughput and with low detection limits. Liquid-based extractions have been exceedingly used for clean-up and preconcentration of antibiotics prior to chromatographic analysis. In order to make methods more green and environmentally sustainable, conventional hazardous organic solvents can be replaced with green solvents. This review presents sampling strategies as well as comprehensive and up-to-date methods for chemical analysis of antibiotic residues in different sample matrices. Particularly, solvent-based sample preparation techniques using green solvents are discussed along with applications in antibiotic residue analysis.
- Analytisk kemi