A capacitive biosensor for the detection of protein A was developed. Gold electrodes were fabricated by thermal evaporation and patterned by photoresist photolithography. A layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly of thiourea (TU) and HAuCl4 and chemical reduction was utilized to prepare a probe with a different number of layers of TU and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The LbL-modified electrodes were used for the immobilization of human IgG. The binding interaction between human IgG and protein A was detected as a decrease in capacitance signal, and that change was used to investigate the correlation between the height of the LbL probe and the sensitivity of the capacitive measurement. The results showed that the initial increase in length of the LbL probe can enhance the amount of immobilized human IgG, leading to a more sensitive assay. However, with thicker LbL layers, a reduction of the sensitivity of the measurement was registered. The performance of the developed system under optimum set-up showed a linearity in response from 1 × 10−16 to 1 × 10−13 M, with the limit detection of 9.1 × 10−17 M, which could be interesting for the detection of trace amounts of protein A from affinity isolation of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies.
Bibliografisk informationPublisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- Analytisk kemi