Background: Contact dermatitis resulting from the use of shin pads is usually caused by rubber components, dyes, benzoyl peroxide, or formaldehyde resins. Objectives: To investigate and identify a new allergen in shin pads that was responsible for severe contact dermatitis in a young football player. Methods: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of samples of shin pads was performed. The boy was patch tested with pieces of shin pads and with acetophenone azine, a chemical substance identified by HPLC in the foam of the shin pads. Results: HPLC identified acetophenone azine at concentrations of approximately 20μg/g of shin pad samples. Patch tests gave strongly positive reactions to pieces of shin pads and to acetophenone azine down to 0.001% in acetone, whereas acetophenone and hydrazine sulfate were both negative. Twenty controls were negative for acetophenone azine 0.01% in acetone. Conclusions: Acetophenone azine is a new, strong allergen of shin pads, and more generally of other sport equipment based on ethylene vinyl acetate. It may be used as a biocide, but this has to be confirmed. Further investigations are needed to understand factors such as exposure, cross-reaction patterns, metabolism, and the optimal patch test preparation.
- Dermatologi och venereologi