Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune bleeding disorder mediated by antiplatelet autoantibodies and antigen-specific T cells that either destroy platelets peripherally in the spleen or impair platelet production in the bone marrow. There have been a plethora of publications relating to the pathophysiology of ITP and since January of 2019, at least 50 papers have been published on ITP pathophysiology. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the literature relating to the pathophysiology of ITP including the working mechanisms of therapies, T-cell and B-cell physiology, protein/RNA/DNA biochemistry, and animal models in an attempt to unify the perceived abnormal immune processes. RECENT FINDINGS: The most recent pathophysiologic irregularities associated with ITP relate to abnormal T-cell responses, particularly, defective T regulatory cell activity and how therapeutics can restore these responses. The robust literature on T cells in ITP points to the notion that ITP is a disease initiated by faulty self-tolerance mechanisms very much like that of other organ-specific autoimmune diseases. There is also a large literature on new and existing animal models of ITP and these will be discussed. It appears that understanding how to specifically modulate T cells in patients with ITP will undoubtedly lead to effective antigen-specific therapeutics. CONCLUSIONS: ITP is predominately a T cell disorder which leads to a breakdown in self tolerance mechanisms and allows for the generation of anti-platelet autoantibodies and T cells. Novel therapeutics that target T cells may be the most effective way to perhaps cure this disorder.