## Sammanfattning

Background: In recent years, a lot of effort has been put in the enhancement of medical imaging using artificial intelligence. However, limited patient data in combination with the unavailability of a ground truth often pose a challenge to a systematic validation of such methodologies. The goal of this work was to investigate a recently proposed method for an artificial intelligence-based generation of synthetic SPECT projections, for acceleration of the image acquisition process based on a large dataset of realistic SPECT simulations. Methods: A database of 10,000 SPECT projection datasets of heterogeneous activity distributions of randomly placed random shapes was simulated for a clinical SPECT/CT system using the SIMIND Monte Carlo program. Synthetic projections at fixed angular increments from a set of input projections at evenly distributed angles were generated by different u-shaped convolutional neural networks (u-nets). These u-nets differed in noise realization used for the training data, number of input projections, projection angle increment, and number of training/validation datasets. Synthetic projections were generated for 500 test projection datasets for each u-net, and a quantitative analysis was performed using statistical hypothesis tests based on structural similarity index measure and normalized root-mean-squared error. Additional simulations with varying detector orbits were performed on a subset of the dataset to study the effect of the detector orbit on the performance of the methodology. For verification of the results, the u-nets were applied to Jaszczak and NEMA physical phantom data obtained on a clinical SPECT/CT system. Results: No statistically significant differences were observed between u-nets trained with different noise realizations. In contrast, a statistically significant deterioration was found for training with a small subset (400 datasets) of the 10,000 simulated projection datasets in comparison with using a large subset (9500 datasets) for training. A good agreement between synthetic (i.e., u-net generated) and simulated projections before adding noise demonstrates a denoising effect. Finally, the physical phantom measurements show that our findings also apply for projections measured on a clinical SPECT/CT system. Conclusion: Our study shows the large potential of u-nets for accelerating SPECT/CT imaging. In addition, our analysis numerically reveals a denoising effect when generating synthetic projections with a u-net. Clinically interesting, the methodology has proven robust against camera orbit deviations in a clinically realistic range. Lastly, we found that a small number of training samples (e.g., ~ 400 datasets) may not be sufficient for reliable generalization of the u-net.

Originalspråk | engelska |
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Artikelnummer | 47 |

Tidskrift | EJNMMI Physics |

Volym | 9 |

Nummer | 1 |

DOI | |

Status | Published - 2022 dec. |

## Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ)

- Radiologi och bildbehandling