Our objective was to compare the effects of surgical and device closure of atrial septal defects (ASDs) on atrioventricular plane function. In healthy individuals, both short- and long-axis motion contribute to ventricular pump function. Short-axis function (i.e., the amplitude and velocity of atrioventricular plane movements) may be evaluated by M-mode and Doppler tissue imaging. The study group consisted of 19 children with ASD of the secundum type before and after surgical (n = 12) or device (n = 7) closure and 10 healthy controls. Surgical and device closures were uncomplicated and all defects were completely closed. Registrations of atrioventricular plane systolic and diastolic amplitude and velocity were made from the tricuspid and the mitral annulus and from the septum in the apical four-chamber view. Comparisons were made between examinations before and after closure, between the two subgroups of patients treated by surgical and device closure, respectively, and between the patient group and the control groups. Before ASD closure, all measurements were normal or near normal. After surgery, systolic amplitudes and velocities of the tricuspid annulus and in the septum decreased significantly, whereas no changes were seen in the device group. Less marked changes were seen in diastolic measurements. However, in the surgical group significant decrease to subnormal values were found in the tricuspid annulus and in the septum, which may indicate a decreased diastolic function postoperatively. Mitral valve annulus amplitude and velocity were not affected by the treatment. Atrioventricular function is normal in children with right ventricular volume overload. The decrease to subnormal values after open-heart surgery is not seen after device closure of the ASD, indicating that surgery affects right ventricular function.