Objective: We aimed to study whether antipsychotic use during pregnancy is associated with gestational diabetes. Methods: This was a Swedish national register‐based cohort study on the Medical Birth Register and the Prescribed Drug Register including all 1,307,487 singleton births between July 2006 and December 2017. Antipsychotics were divided into first-generation antipsychotics (n = 728), high-risk metabolic second-generation antipsychotics including olanzapine, clozapine and quetiapine (n = 1710), and other second-generation antipsychotics (n = 541). The risks for gestational diabetes, foetal growth disturbances, pre-eclampsia, caesarean section and preterm labour were assessed. Women treated during pregnancy were compared to women not treated during pregnancy and to women who used antipsychotics before/after but not during pregnancy. Results: The crude risk ratio for gestational diabetes for women treated with high-risk metabolic second-generation antipsychotics during pregnancy was 2.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6–2.9) compared to untreated pregnant women (n = 1,296,539) and 1.8 (95% CI 1.4–2.5) compared to women treated before/after pregnancy (n = 34,492). After adjustment for maternal factors including body mass index, the risk ratios were 1.8 (95% CI 1.3–2.4) and 1.6 (95% CI 1.2–2.1). Exposed infants had an increased risk of being large for gestational age: adjusted risk ratios 1.6 (95% CI 1.3–1.9) and 1.3 (95% CI 1.1–1.6) compared to no maternal antipsychotic use during pregnancy and maternal use before/after the pregnancy. Other antipsychotics were not associated with metabolic risks. Conclusions: Olanzapine, clozapine and quetiapine used during pregnancy were associated with increased risks for gestational diabetes and the infant being large for gestational age. Enhanced metabolic monitoring should be considered for pregnant women using these drugs.
- Reproduktionsmedicin och gynekologi