Background: The etiology of giant cell arteritis (GCA) and its predictors are incompletely understood. Previous studies have indicated reduced risk of future development of GCA in individuals with obesity and/or diabetes mellitus. There is limited information on blood lipids before the onset of GCA. The objective of the study was to investigate the relation between apolipoprotein levels and future diagnosis of GCA in a nested case–control analysis. Methods: Individuals who developed GCA after inclusion in a population-based health survey (the Malmö Diet Cancer Study; N = 30,447) were identified by linking the health survey database to the local patient administrative register and the national patient register. A structured review of medical records was performed. Four controls for every validated case, matched for sex, year of birth, and year of screening, were selected from the database. Anthropometric measures, self-reported physical activity, based on a comprehensive, validated questionnaire, and non-fasting blood samples had been obtained at health survey screening. Concentrations of apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) in stored serum were measured using an immunonephelometric assay. Potential predictors of GCA were examined in conditional logistic regression models. Results: There were 100 cases with a confirmed clinical diagnosis of GCA (81% female; mean age at diagnosis 73.6 years). The median time from screening to diagnosis was 12 years (range 0.3–19.1). The cases had significantly higher ApoA-I at baseline screening compared to controls (mean 168.7 vs 160.9 mg/dL, odds ratio [OR] 1.57 per standard deviation (SD); 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18–2.10) (SD 25.5 mg/dL). ApoB levels were similar between cases and controls (mean 109.3 vs 110.4 mg/dL, OR 0.99 per SD; 95% CI 0.74–1.32) (SD 27.1 mg/dL). The ApoB/ApoA1 ratio tended to be lower in cases than in controls, but the difference did not reach significance. The association between ApoA-I and GCA development remained significant in analysis adjusted for body mass index and physical activity (OR 1.48 per SD; 95% CI 1.09–1.99). Conclusion: Subsequent development of GCA was associated with significantly higher levels of ApoA-I. These findings suggest that a metabolic profile associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease may predispose to GCA.

TidskriftArthritis Research and Therapy
StatusPublished - 2024 dec.

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ)

  • Reumatologi och inflammation


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