Anhydromannose (anMan)-containing heparan sulfate (HS) derived from the proteoglycan glypican-1 (Gpc-1) is generated in endosomes by an endogenously or ascorbate induced SNO-catalyzed reaction. Processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and APP-like protein 2 (APLP2) by β- and γ-secretases into amyloid beta (Aβ) and Aβ-like peptides also takes place in these compartments. Moreover, anMan-containing HS suppresses the formation of toxic Aβ assemblies in vitro. We show by using deconvolution immunofluorescence microscopy with an anMan-specific monoclonal antibody as well as 35S-labeling experiment that expression of APP/APLP2 is required for ascorbate-induced transport of HS from endosomes to the nucleus. Nuclear translocation was observed in wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts (Wt-MEF), Tg2576 MEF and N2a neuroblastoma cells but not in APP-/- and APLP2-/- MEF. Transfection of APP-/- cells with a vector encoding APP restored nuclear import of anMan-containing HS. In Wt-MEF and N2a neuroblastoma cells exposed to β- or γ-secretase inhibitors, nuclear translocation was greatly impeded, suggesting involvement of APP/APLP2 degradation products. In Tg2576 MEF, the β-inhibitor blocked transport but the γ- inhibitor did not. During chase in ascorbate-free medium, anMan-containing HS disappeared from the nuclei of Wt-MEF. Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy showed that they appeared in acidic, LC3-positive vesicles in keeping with an autophagosomal location. There was increased accumulation of anMan-containing HS in nuclei and cytosolic vesicles upon treatment with chloroquine indicating that HS was degraded in lysosomes. Manipulations of APP expression and processing may have deleterious effects upon HS function in the nucleus.
- Cancer och onkologi