Background and Objectives Small vessel disease (SVD) and neuroinflammation both occur in Alzheimer disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative diseases. It is unclear whether these processes are related or independent mechanisms in AD, especially in the early stages of disease. We therefore investigated the association between white matter lesions (WML; the most common manifestation of SVD) and CSF biomarkers of neuroinflammation and their effects on cognition in a population without dementia. Methods Individuals without dementia from the Swedish BioFINDER study were included. The CSF was analyzed for proinflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-6 and IL-8), cytokines (IL-7, IL-15, and IL-16), chemokines (interferon γ-induced protein 10, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1), markers of vascular injury (soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1, soluble vascular adhesion molecule 1), and markers of angiogenesis (placental growth factor [PlGF], soluble fms-related tyrosine kinase 1 [sFlt-1], vascular endothelial growth factors [VEGF-A and VEFG-D]), and amyloid β (Aβ)42 Aβ40, and p-tau217. WML volumes were determined at baseline and longitudinally over 6 years. Cognition was measured at baseline and follow-up over 8 years. Linear regression models were used to test associations. Results A total of 495 cognitively unimpaired (CU) elderly individuals and 247 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were included. There was significant worsening in cognition over time, measured by Mini-Mental State Examination, Clinical Dementia Rating, and modified preclinical Alzheimer composite score in CU individuals and patients with MCI, with more rapid worsening in MCI for all cognitive tests. At baseline, higher levels of PlGF (β = 0.156, p < 0.001), lower levels of sFlt-1 (β = −0.086, p = 0.003), and higher levels of IL-8 (β = 0.07, p = 0.030) were associated with more WML in CU individuals. In those with MCI, higher levels of PlGF (β = 0.172, p = 0.001), IL-16 (β = 0.125, p = 0.001), IL-8 (β = 0.096, p = 0.013), IL-6 (β = 0.088, p = 0.023), VEGF-A (β = 0.068, p = 0.028), and VEGF-D (β = 0.082, p = 0.028) were associated with more WML. PlGF was the only biomarker that was associated with WML independent of Aβ status and cognitive impairment. Longitudinal analyses of cognition showed independent effects ofCSF inflammatory markers andWMLon longitudinal cognition, especially in peoplewithout cognitive impairment at baseline. Discussion Most neuroinflammatory CSF biomarkers were associated with WML in individuals without dementia. Our findings especially highlight a role for PlGF, which was associated with WML independent of Aβ status and cognitive impairment.

Sidor (från-till)E1812-E1824
StatusPublished - 2023 apr.

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ)

  • Neurologi


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