Beta-lactam antibiotic concentrations in critically ill patients with standard and adjusted dosages: A prospective observational study

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Sammanfattning

Introduction
Antibiotic concentration target attainment is known to be poor in critically ill patients. Dose adjustment is recommended in patients with altered clearance, obesity and those with bacterial species with intermediate susceptibility. The aim of this study was to investigate the variation of antibiotic concentration in critically ill patients with standard or adjusted dosing regimens.

Methods
The concentration of three beta-lactam antibiotics used in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting, cefotaxime, piperacillin/tazobactam, and meropenem, was measured in patients with confirmed or suspected infection. Mid-dose and trough values were collected during a single dosing interval. The pharmacokinetic endpoints were a free antibiotic concentration that, during the whole dosing interval, was above MIC (100% ƒT > MIC, primary endpoint) or above four times MIC (100% ƒT > 4MIC, secondary endpoint). Non-species related MIC breakpoints were used (1 mg/L for cefotaxime, 8 mg/L for piperacillin/tazobactam, and 2 mg/L for meropenem).

Results
We included 102 patients (38 cefotaxime, 30 piperacillin/tazobactam, and 34 meropenem) at a single ICU, with a median age of 66 years. In total, 73% were males, 40% were obese (BMI ≥30) and the median SAPS 3 score was 63 points. Of all patients, 78 patients (76%) reached the primary endpoint (100%ƒT > MIC), with 74% for cefotaxime, 67% for piperacillin/tazobactam and 88% for meropenem. Target attainment for 100% ƒT > 4MIC was achieved in 40 (39%) patients, overall, with 34% for cefotaxime, 30% for piperacillin/tazobactam and 53% for meropenem. In patients with standard dose 71% attained 100%ƒT > MIC and 37% for 100%ƒT > 4MIC. All patients with reduced dose attained 100%ƒT > MIC and 27% attained 100% ƒT > 4MIC. In patients with increased dose 79% attained 100%ƒT > MIC and 48% 100%ƒT > 4MIC respectively.

Conclusions
Beta-lactam antibiotics concentration vary widely in critically ill patients. The current standard dosing regimens employed during the study were not sufficient to reach 100% ƒT > MIC in approximately a quarter of the patients. In patients where dose adjustment was performed, the group with increased dose also had low target attainment, as opposed to patients with dose reduction, who all reached target. This suggests the need for further individualization of dosing where therapeutic drug monitoring can be an alternative to further increase target attainment.
Originalspråkengelska
TidskriftActa Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
DOI
StatusE-pub ahead of print - 2024

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ)

  • Anestesi och intensivvård

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