Biomarker-based staging of Alzheimer disease: rationale and clinical applications

Joseph Therriault, Suzanne E. Schindler, Gemma Salvadó, Tharick A. Pascoal, Andréa Lessa Benedet, Nicholas J. Ashton, Thomas K. Karikari, Liana Apostolova, Melissa E. Murray, Inge Verberk, Jacob W. Vogel, Renaud La Joie, Serge Gauthier, Charlotte Teunissen, Gil D. Rabinovici, Henrik Zetterberg, Randall J. Bateman, Philip Scheltens, Kaj Blennow, Reisa SperlingOskar Hansson, Clifford R. Jack, Pedro Rosa-Neto

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragÖversiktsartikelPeer review

Sammanfattning

Disease staging, whereby the spatial extent and load of brain pathology are used to estimate the severity of Alzheimer disease (AD), is pivotal to the gold-standard neuropathological diagnosis of AD. Current in vivo diagnostic frameworks for AD are based on abnormal concentrations of amyloid-β and tau in the cerebrospinal fluid or on PET scans, and breakthroughs in molecular imaging have opened up the possibility of in vivo staging of AD. Focusing on the key principles of disease staging shared across several areas of medicine, this Review highlights the potential for in vivo staging of AD to transform our understanding of preclinical AD, refine enrolment criteria for trials of disease-modifying therapies and aid clinical decision-making in the era of anti-amyloid therapeutics. We provide a state-of-the-art review of recent biomarker-based AD staging systems and highlight their contributions to the understanding of the natural history of AD. Furthermore, we outline hypothetical frameworks to stage AD severity using more accessible fluid biomarkers. In addition, by applying amyloid PET-based staging to recently published anti-amyloid therapeutic trials, we highlight how biomarker-based disease staging frameworks could illustrate the numerous pathological changes that have already taken place in individuals with mildly symptomatic AD. Finally, we discuss challenges related to the validation and standardization of disease staging and provide a forward-looking perspective on potential clinical applications.

Originalspråkengelska
TidskriftNature Reviews Neurology
DOI
StatusE-pub ahead of print - 2024

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ)

  • Neurologi

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