Biomarkers and Proteomics in Sarcomeric Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in the Young—FGF-21 Highly Associated with Overt Disease

Anna Wålinder Österberg, Ingegerd Östman-Smith, Henrik Green, Cecilia Gunnarsson, Mats Fredrikson, Petru Liuba, Eva Fernlund

Forskningsoutput: TidskriftsbidragArtikel i vetenskaplig tidskriftPeer review


Background: Any difference in biomarkers between genotype-positive individuals with overt hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and genotype-positive but phenotype-negative individuals (G+P-) in HCM-associated pathways might shed light on pathophysiological mechanisms. We studied this in young HCM patients. Methods: 29 HCM patients, 17 G+P--individuals, and age- and sex-matched controls were prospectively included. We analyzed 184 cardiovascular disease-associated proteins by two proximity extension assays, categorized into biological pathways, and analyzed with multivariate logistic regression analysis. Significant proteins were dichotomized into groups above/below median concentration in control group. Results: Dichotomized values of significant proteins showed high odds ratio (OR) in overt HCMphenotype for Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) 10 (p = 0.001), P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) OR 8.6 (p = 0.005), and Galectin-9 (Gal-9) OR 5.91 (p = 0.004). For G+P-, however, angiopoietin-1 receptor (TIE2) was notably raised, OR 65.5 (p = 0.004), whereas metalloproteinase inhibitor 4 (TIMP4) involved in proteolysis, in contrast, had reduced OR 0.06 (p = 0.013). Conclusions: This study is one of the first in young HCM patients and G+P- individuals. We found significantly increased OR for HCM in FGF-21 involved in RAS-MAPK pathway, associated with cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Upregulation of FGF-21 indicates involvement of the RAS-MAPK pathway in HCM regardless of genetic background, which is a novel finding.

TidskriftJournal of cardiovascular development and disease
StatusPublished - 2024 apr.

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  • Klinisk laboratoriemedicin


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