Type II NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductases are single polypeptide proteins widespread in the living world. They bypass the first site of respiratory energy conservation, constituted by the type I NADH dehydrogenases. To investigate substrate specificities and Ca2+ binding properties of seven predicted type II NAD(P)H dehydrogenases of Arabidopsis thaliana we have produced them as T7-tagged fusion proteins in Escherichia coli. The NDB1 and NDB2 enzymes were found to bind Ca2+, and a single amino acid substitution in the EF hand motif of NDB1 abolished the Ca2+ binding. NDB2 and NDB4 functionally complemented an E. coli mutant deficient in endogenous type I and type II NADH dehydrogenases. This demonstrates that these two plant enzymes can substitute for the NADH dehydrogenases in the bacterial respiratory chain. Three NDB-type enzymes displayed distinct catalytic profiles with substrate specificities and Ca2+ stimulation being considerably affected by changes in pH and substrate concentrations. Under physiologically relevant conditions, the NDB1 fusion protein acted as a Ca2+-dependent NADPH dehydrogenase. NDB2 and NDB4 fusion proteins were NADH-specific, and NDB2 was stimulated by Ca2+. The observed activity profiles of the NDB-type enzymes provide a fundament for understanding the mitochondrial system for direct oxidation of cytosolic NAD(P)H in plants. Our findings also suggest different modes of regulation and metabolic roles for the analyzed A. thaliana enzymes.
- Biologiska vetenskaper
- Biokemi och molekylärbiologi