Extracellular influx of calcium or release of calcium from intracellular stores have been shown to activate mammalian TRPA1 as well as to sensitize and desensitize TRPA1 electrophilic activation. Calcium binding sites on both intracellular N- and C-termini have been proposed. Here, we demonstrate based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and bilayer patch-clamp studies, a direct calmodulin-independent action of calcium on the purified human TRPA1 (hTRPA1), causing structural changes and activation without immediate subsequent desensitization of hTRPA1 with and without its N-terminal ankyrin repeat domain (N-ARD). Thus, calcium alone activates hTRPA1 by a direct interaction with binding sites outside the N-ARD.
- Cell- och molekylärbiologi