Interdiffusion and chemical reactions contribute to tool wear in metal machining. Increased understanding of these processes, through characterisation of worn tools, can facilitate design of more resilient materials through chemical and diffusional passivation. However, the unknown reaction conditions, the large number of elements, and the formation of interspersed phases makes for a complex analysis. Here, we demonstrate the use of scanning transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy for characterising the interaction layer between a titanium alloy and a cemented carbide tool. Principal component analysis is used to find chemical correlations and help separate signals from embedded phases. Crucially, we evaluate the required X-ray count statistics from simulated spectrum images and theory prior to the experiment. We find no indications of intermediate phases between the original WC and the metallic W interaction layer. Furthermore, we find enrichment of minor constituents in the titanium alloy closest to the tool which alter the solubility of out-diffusing species, suggesting strong interrelations between the diffusion processes.
Bibliografisk informationFunding Information:
The authors acknowledge support from the Crafoord Foundation (20200705). The computations were performed on resources provided by the Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC) at LUNARC (LU 2020/2‐13). The collaboration and support of Seco Tools AB and particularly Dr. R. M'Saoubi is greatly appreciated. The work was also supported by the Sustainable Production Initiative (SPI). The authors thank P. Holmquist and E. Wiklund for performing exploratory analysis of the sample, and D. Wahlqvist for assistance with analysing the electron diffraction pattern.
© 2021 The Authors. Journal of Microscopy published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal Microscopical Society
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