TY - JOUR

T1 - Characterising TOI-732 b and c: New insights into the M-dwarf radius and density valley★,★★

AU - Bonfanti, A.

AU - Mustill, A.J.

AU - Davies, M.B.

AU - Westerdorff, K.

AU - Zingales, T.

AU - et al.

PY - 2024

Y1 - 2024

N2 - Context. TOI-732 is an M dwarf hosting two transiting planets that are located on the two opposite sides of the radius valley. Inferring a reliable demographics for this type of systems is key to understanding their formation and evolution mechanisms. Aims. By doubling the number of available space-based observations and increasing the number of radial velocity (RV) measurements, we aim at refining the parameters of TOI-732 b and c. We also use the results to study the slope of the radius valley and the density valley for a well-characterised sample of M-dwarf exoplanets. Methods. We performed a global Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis by jointly modelling ground-based light curves and CHEOPS and TESS observations, along with RV time series both taken from the literature and obtained with the MAROON-X spectrograph. The slopes of the M-dwarf valleys were quantified via a support vector machine (SVM) procedure. Results. TOI-732 b is an ultrashort-period planet (P = 0.76837931−+000000004200000039 days) with a radius Rb = 1.325+−00057058 R☉, a mass Mb = 2.46 ± 0.19 M☉, and thus a mean density ρb = 5.8+−1008 g cm−3, while the outer planet at P = 12.252284 ± 0.000013 days has Rc = 2.39+−001011 R☉, Mc = 8.04+−005048 M☉, and thus ρc = 3.24+−005543 g cm−3. Even with respect to the most recently reported values, this work yields uncertainties on the transit depths and on the RV semi-amplitudes that are smaller up to a factor of ∼1.6 and ∼2.4 for TOI-732 b and c, respectively. Our calculations for the interior structure and the location of the planets in the mass-radius diagram lead us to classify TOI-732 b as a super-Earth and TOI-732 c as a mini-Neptune. Following the SVM approach, we quantified d log Rp,valley/d log P = −0.065+−00024013, which is flatter than for Sun-like stars. In line with former analyses, we note that the radius valley for M-dwarf planets is more densely populated, and we further quantify the slope of the density valley as d log ρ̂valley/d log P = −0.02+−001204. Conclusions. Compared to FGK stars, the weaker dependence of the position of the radius valley on the orbital period might indicate that the formation shapes the radius valley around M dwarfs more strongly than the evolution mechanisms.

AB - Context. TOI-732 is an M dwarf hosting two transiting planets that are located on the two opposite sides of the radius valley. Inferring a reliable demographics for this type of systems is key to understanding their formation and evolution mechanisms. Aims. By doubling the number of available space-based observations and increasing the number of radial velocity (RV) measurements, we aim at refining the parameters of TOI-732 b and c. We also use the results to study the slope of the radius valley and the density valley for a well-characterised sample of M-dwarf exoplanets. Methods. We performed a global Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis by jointly modelling ground-based light curves and CHEOPS and TESS observations, along with RV time series both taken from the literature and obtained with the MAROON-X spectrograph. The slopes of the M-dwarf valleys were quantified via a support vector machine (SVM) procedure. Results. TOI-732 b is an ultrashort-period planet (P = 0.76837931−+000000004200000039 days) with a radius Rb = 1.325+−00057058 R☉, a mass Mb = 2.46 ± 0.19 M☉, and thus a mean density ρb = 5.8+−1008 g cm−3, while the outer planet at P = 12.252284 ± 0.000013 days has Rc = 2.39+−001011 R☉, Mc = 8.04+−005048 M☉, and thus ρc = 3.24+−005543 g cm−3. Even with respect to the most recently reported values, this work yields uncertainties on the transit depths and on the RV semi-amplitudes that are smaller up to a factor of ∼1.6 and ∼2.4 for TOI-732 b and c, respectively. Our calculations for the interior structure and the location of the planets in the mass-radius diagram lead us to classify TOI-732 b as a super-Earth and TOI-732 c as a mini-Neptune. Following the SVM approach, we quantified d log Rp,valley/d log P = −0.065+−00024013, which is flatter than for Sun-like stars. In line with former analyses, we note that the radius valley for M-dwarf planets is more densely populated, and we further quantify the slope of the density valley as d log ρ̂valley/d log P = −0.02+−001204. Conclusions. Compared to FGK stars, the weaker dependence of the position of the radius valley on the orbital period might indicate that the formation shapes the radius valley around M dwarfs more strongly than the evolution mechanisms.

KW - planets and satellites: fundamental parameters

KW - stars: fundamental parameters

KW - techniques: photometric

KW - techniques: radial velocities

KW - Landforms

KW - Markov processes

KW - Planets

KW - Satellites

KW - Time series analysis

KW - Doublings

KW - Evolution mechanism

KW - Formation and evolutions

KW - Formation mechanism

KW - Planets and satellites: fundamental parameters

KW - Radial velocity

KW - Stars:fundamental parameters

KW - Support vectors machine

KW - Techniques: photometric

KW - Techniques: radial velocities

KW - Support vector machines

U2 - 10.1051/0004-6361/202348180

DO - 10.1051/0004-6361/202348180

M3 - Article

SN - 0004-6361

VL - 682

JO - Astronomy and Astrophysics

JF - Astronomy and Astrophysics

M1 - A66

ER -