Participants in an international conference on prophylactic therapy for severe haemophilia developed a consensus summary of the findings and conclusions of the conference. In the consensus, participants agreed upon revised definitions for primary and secondary prophylaxis and also made recommendations concerning the need for an international system of pharmacovigilance. Considerations on starting prophylaxis, monitoring outcomes, and individualizing treatment regimens were discussed. Several research questions were identified as needing further investigation, including when to start and when to stop prophylaxis, optimal dosing and dose interval, and methods for assessment of long-term treatment effects. Such studies should include carefully defined cohorts, validated orthopaedic and quality-of-life assessment instruments, and cost-benefit analyses.