This Data in Brief paper contains data (including images) from Quaternary sedimentary successions investigated along the Bol’shaya Balakhnya River and the Luktakh–Upper Taimyra–Logata river system on southern Taimyr Peninsula, NW Siberia (Russia). Marine foraminifera and mollusc fauna composition, extracted from sediment samples, is presented. The chronology (time of deposition) of the sediment successions is reconstructed from three dating methods; (i) radiocarbon dating of organic detritus (from lacustrine/fluvial sediment) and molluscs (marine sediment) as finite ages (usually <42 000 years) or as non-finite ages (>42 000–48 000 years) on samples/sediments beyond the radiocarbon dating limit; (ii) Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) dating on marine molluscs (up to ages >400 000 years); (iii) Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating, usually effective up to 100-150 0000 years. Terrestrial Cosmogenic Nuclide (TCN) exposure dating has been applied to boulders resting on top of moraine ridges (Ice Marginal Zones). See Möller et al. (in press) for further interpretation and discussion.