Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a phosphosphingolipid with pleiotropic biological functions. S1P acts as an intracellular second messenger, as well as extracellular ligand to five G-protein coupled receptors (S1PR1-5). In the brain, S1P regulates neuronal proliferation, apoptosis, synaptic activity and neuroglia activation. Moreover, S1P metabolism alterations have been reported in neurodegenerative disorders. We have previously reported that S1PRs are present in nerve terminals, exhibiting distinct sub-synaptic localization and neuromodulation actions. Since type 2 diabetes (T2D) causes synaptic dysfunction, we hypothesized that S1P signaling is modified in nerve terminals. In this study, we determined the density of S1PRs in cortical synaptosomes from insulin-resistant Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats and Wistar controls, and from mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and low-fat-fed controls. Relative to their controls, GK rats showed similar cortical S1P concentration despite higher S1P levels in plasma, yet lower density of S1PR1, S1PR2 and S1PR4 in nerve-terminal-enriched membranes. HFD-fed mice exhibited increased plasma and cortical concentrations of S1P, and decreased density of S1PR1 and S1PR4. These findings point towards altered S1P signaling in synapses of insulin resistance and diet-induced obesity models, suggesting a role of S1P signaling in T2D-associated synaptic dysfunction.

TidskriftNeurochemical Research
StatusPublished - 2023 okt. 4

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ)

  • Neurovetenskaper
  • Cell- och molekylärbiologi


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