Development and Implementation of Cardiac Event Detectors in Digital CMOS

Forskningsoutput: AvhandlingDoktorsavhandling (sammanläggning)


This doctoral dissertation presents the development and digital hardware realization of cardiac event detectors. Implantable medical

appliances, as the cardiac pacemaker, have progressed from a life

sustaining device to a device that considerably improves life

quality for all ages. The number of electronic devices and household

appliances in everyday live has an ongoing exponential growth. These

devices contaminate their environment with electronic, magnetic or

electromagnetic radiation. Pacemaker patients exposed to this

environment may suffer due to malfunction of the pacemaker. Thus,

the next generation of pacemakers require a low-power consuming

event detector that provides reliable detection performance.

In this thesis two papers that present an artificial neural network

based event detector for R-wave detection are merged to an extended

manuscript. The neural network functions as a whitening filter prior

to a matched filter. It is shown how the neural network responds to

sudden changes in the input sequence. An algorithm that determines

the initial template for matched filtering is proposed, and a

continuous update of the filter impulse response is implemented in

order to track long-term changes in signal morphology. Furthermore,

an updated threshold function is proposed which addresses amplitude

variations in the electrogram. Noise suppression and classification

performance under ``real-life situation'' are explored by analyzing

recordings from databases of electrograms and noise. Finally, the

suitability for pacemaker application is discussed.

Four papers that present a low-power digital hardware implementation

of a wavelet based event detector are merged and extended in the

second part of this thesis. The theory of the wavelet filterbank is

presented, and it is shown how the architecture was modified to

achieve an area and power efficient silicon implementation. An

algorithm is presented that determines automatically a threshold

level during the initialization phase. A second operation mode is

proposed to shut down major parts of the hardware, if the patient is

at rest or in a ``low-noise'' environment. Power analysis on

RTL-level shows that leakage power is the dominant factor in the

total power figure. An estimate for leakage reduction is presented

if sleep transistors are introduced between the supply rails and the

logic that is shut-off in low-noise operation mode. The R-wave

detector has been implemented in 0.13$,mu$m low-leakage CMOS

technology. The design has been routed, and, thereafter, sleep

transistors are introduced in the layout. Detection performance is

evaluated by means of databases containing electrograms to which

five types of exogenic and endogenic interference are added. The

results show that reliable detection is obtained at moderate and low

Tilldelande institution
  • Institutionen för elektro- och informationsteknik
  • Öwall, Viktor, handledare
Tilldelningsdatum2005 okt. 7
ISBN (tryckt)1402866256
StatusPublished - 2005

Bibliografisk information

Defence details

Date: 2005-10-07
Time: 10:15
Place: Room E:1406, E-building, Ole Römers väg 3, Lund Institute of Technology

External reviewer(s)

Name: Lande, Tor Sverre
Title: Professor
Affiliation: Dept. of Informatics, University of Oslo


Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ)

  • Elektroteknik och elektronik

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