Wang Y, Roller J, Slotta JE, Zhang S, Luo L, Rahman M, Syk I, Menger MD, Thorlacius H. Distinct patterns of leukocyte recruitment in the pulmonary microvasculature in response to local and systemic inflammation. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 304: L298-L305, 2013. First published December 28, 2012; doi:10.1152/ajplung.00246.2012.The mechanisms of leukocyte recruitment in the pulmonary microvasculature in response to local and systemic inflammation remain elusive. Male C57BL/6 mice received lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intrapulmonary (intratracheally, it) or systemically (intravenously, iv) for 1-18 h. Leukocyte responses in lung were analyzed by use of intravital fluorescence microscopy. Plasma and lung levels of CXC chemokines as well as Mac-1 and F-actin expression in leukocytes and bronchoalveolar leukocytes were quantified. Venular leukocyte rolling was markedly increased in response to local LPS but only marginally after systemic LPS. Leukocyte adhesion in venules was enhanced in both groups although adhesion was higher in mice receiving LPS intratracheally compared with LPS intravenously. Systemic LPS caused more leukocytes trapping in capillaries compared with local LPS. The ratio of adherent leukocytes in venules compared with capillaries was higher in response to local LPS, suggesting that leukocytes were more prone to accumulate in venules in local inflammation and in capillaries in systemic inflammation. Systemic LPS triggered higher F-actin formation and Mac-1 expression in leukocytes compared with local LPS. Local and systemic LPS caused similar increases in CXC chemokines in the lung whereas intravenous endotoxin provoked higher levels of CXC chemokines in the circulation. Interestingly, intratracheal LPS increased recruitment of leukocytes in the alveolar space whereas intravenous LPS was ineffective in promoting leukocyte accumulation in the bronchoalveolar space. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that pulmonary microvascular recruitment of leukocytes differs in local and systemic inflammation, which might be related to premature activation and stiffening of circulating leukocytes in endotoxemia.