Objective: To outline perceived associations between various sex hormones and risk markers for cardiovascular disease in middle-aged women, with an emphasis on features of the metabolic syndrome (MS). Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Setting: Women's Health in the Lund Area Study. Patient(s): Population-based cohort. Intervention(s): A generic questionnaire, physical examinations, and laboratory assessments were completed by 6,917 women aged 50-59 years living in the Lund area of southern Sweden. Women at or above defined cutoff limits for the MS were considered positively screened. After exclusion of women using hormone therapy (HT), 2,038 women with (MS+) and 2,054 women without features of the MS (MS-) were included. The ELISA techniques were used for the determination of serum androstendione (A), E-2, T, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), cortisol, insulin, and leptin levels. Serum lipids and lipoproteins were determined by conventional methods. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed, controlling for age, body mass index (BMI), and smoking habits. Main Outcome Measure(s): Features of the MS, sex steroids, cardiovascular risk markers. Result(s): In the MS+ group, a positive association was seen between A and systolic blood pressure. Estradiol was negatively associated with total cholesterol and diastolic blood pressure. The SHBG was negatively associated with triglycerides, blood glucose, and diastolic blood pressure and positively with high-density lipoprotein (HDL). In the MS- group, there were positive associations between A, blood glucose, and systolic blood pressure. Testosterone was positively associated with HDL. Estradiol was negatively associated with total cholesterol and positively with systolic blood pressure. The SHBG was positively associated with HDL and negatively with triglycerides and diastolic blood pressure. There were positive associations between cortisol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, blood glucose, and systolic blood pressure and a negative association with triglycerides in both MS+ and MS- groups. Conclusion(s): Androstendione, E-2, and T levels were associated with cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged women. Effects by sex steroids on cardiovascular risk markers seem to be different in women with or without features of the MS.
|Tidskrift||Fertility and Sterility|
|Status||Published - 2007|
Bibliografisk informationThe information about affiliations in this record was updated in December 2015.
The record was previously connected to the following departments: Department of Clinical Sciences, Malmö (013240000), Pediatrics/Urology/Gynecology/Endocrinology (013240400), Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund (013230000), Division of Nursing (Closed 2012) (013065000), Unit on Vascular Diabetic Complications (013241510), Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (Lund) (013018000), Family Medicine (013241010)
- Reproduktionsmedicin och gynekologi