Hamburgers and chicken fillets were cooked in convection ovens, deep-fried or contact fried and analysed for mutagenic activity using the Ames test. For the three different convection ovens, the cooking parameters studied included the presence of steam, air velocity, air temperature and holding time. For deep-frying and contact frying, the cooking parameters included cooking temperature and cooking time. In cooked hamburgers, mutagenic activity was only detected in those that had been deep-fried. In chicken fillets, mutagenic activity was detected in samples prepared with all cooking methods, being highest in the deep-fried samples. Factorial analysis indicated that heat transfer was the most important factor affecting mutagenic activity. High temperature and high air velocity in the convection ovens enhanced mutagenic activity. The presence of steam reduced the mutagenic activity, except when high temperature was used in combination with high air velocity. In chicken fillets, high mutagenic activity correlated to high weight loss during cooking. Pan-fried chicken fillets were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic amines 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo-[4,5-b]-pyridine (PhIP) and the co-mutagenic heterocyclic amine Norharman (9H-pyrido[3,4-b]-indole) were identified. The HPLC fractions were tested for mutagenic activity and, apart from the mutagenic fractions corresponding to MeIQx and PhIP, several mutagenic fractions were detected that did not correspond to known heterocyclic amines.
|Tidskrift||International Journal of Food Science & Technology|
|Status||Published - 2003|
Bibliografisk informationThe information about affiliations in this record was updated in December 2015.
The record was previously connected to the following departments: Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry (011001300)