ABSTRACT Objectives: This study was designed to assess endovascular intervention for central venous cannulation in patients with vascular occlusion after previous catheterization. Methods: Patients referred for endovascular management of central venous occlusion during a 42-month period were identified from a regional endovascular database, providing prospective information on techniques and clinical outcome. Corresponding patient records, angiograms, and radiographic reports were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Sixteen patients aged 48 years (range 0.5-76), including 11 females, were included. All patients but 1 had had multiple central venous catheters with a median total indwelling time of 37 months. Eleven patients cannulated for hemodialysis had had significantly fewer individual catheters inserted compared with 5 patients cannulated for nutritional support (mean 3.6 vs. 10.2, p<0.001) before endovascular intervention. Preoperative imaging by magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) in 8 patients, computed tomography (CT) venography in 3, conventional angiography in 6, and/or ultrasonography in 8, verified 15 brachiocephalic, 13 internal jugular, 3 superior caval, and/or 3 subclavian venous occlusions. Patients were subjected to recanalization (n=2), recanalization and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (n=5), or stenting for vena cava superior syndrome (n=1) prior to catheter insertion. The remaining 8 patients were cannulated by avoiding the occluded route. Conclusions: Central venous occlusion occurs particularly in patients under hemodialysis and with a history of multiple central venous catheterizations with large-diameter catheters and/or long total indwelling time periods. Patients with central venous occlusion verified by CT or MRT venography and need for central venous access should be referred for endovascular intervention.
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