Environmental Ambitions Meet Industry Protection: The Swedish Approach to Energy Taxation

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Since the 1990s, economic policy instruments have become increasingly important to Swedish climate policy. To understand the characteristics of current systems, this paper presents an analysis of the development of economic policy instruments since the 1950s, with a focus on Swedish industry. Since the introduction of energy taxation, industry has received preferential treatment in the interests of protecting competitiveness. Path dependency, as well as concerns regarding competitiveness, have hampered major reforms necessary to make the system more feasible for CO2 mitigation. Although this was less critical while climate policy goals were relatively modest, as the level of ambition grew it became more problematic. To this end, complementary instruments have been proposed and to a certain extent, implemented.
This study illustrates the long history of energy and environmental taxation in Sweden and how important concerns about industrial competitiveness have been when designing energy and climate policies. It has also shown that the introduction of carbon pricing was not a radical policy shift but rather an adaptation of the existing system to new circumstances. The development could thus be seen as an example of policy path dependency.
Antal sidor35
ISBN (elektroniskt)978-91-86961-57-2
StatusPublished - 2023 okt. 11


NamnEEES Report
ISSN (elektroniskt)1102-3651

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ)

  • Statsvetenskap (exklusive studier av offentlig förvaltning och globaliseringsstudier)
  • Tvärvetenskapliga studier

Fria nyckelord

  • carbon pricing
  • Carbon tax
  • path dependency
  • Industry
  • Sweden

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