Although neighborhood environmental factors have been found to be associated with cognitive decline, few longitudinal studies have focused on their effect on older adults living in rural areas. This longitudinal study aimed to investigate the role of neighborhood environmental factors in cognitive decline among rural older adults. The data of 485 older adults aged ≥60 years who were living in Unnan City in Japan and had participated in two surveys conducted between 2014 and 2018 were analyzed. Cognitive function was assessed using the Cognitive Assessment for Dementia, iPad version 2. Elevation, hilliness, residential density, and proximity to a community center were determined using geographic information system. We applied a generalized estimating equation with odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cognitive decline in the quartiles of neighborhood environmental factors. A total of 56 (11.6%) participants demonstrated a decrease in cognitive function at follow up. Elevation (adjusted OR 2.58, 95% CI (1.39, 4.77) for Q4 vs. Q1) and hilliness (adjusted OR 1.93, 95% CI (1.03, 3.63) for Q4 vs. Q1) were associated with a higher likelihood of cognitive decline. The second quartiles of residential density showed significantly lower likelihoods of cognitive decline compared with the first quartiles (adjusted OR 0.36, 95% CI (0.19, 0.71) for Q2 vs. Q1). Thus, an elevated hilly environment and residential density predicted cognitive decline among rural older adults.
|Tidskrift||International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health|
|Status||Published - 2021 aug 2|
- Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi