Exogenous Glutamate Modulates Porcine Retinal Development in vitro.

Fredrik Ghosh, Linnéa Taylor, Karin Arnér

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Sammanfattning

Embryogenesis of the retina is a complex event orchestrated by a multitude of physical and biochemical signals. To study the impact of intrinsic developmental cues, the retinal tissue can be isolated in culture which also enables modulation of normal development for other purposes, i.e. transplantation of specific neuronal cell types. In the present experiment, cell type development of immature porcine retinal tissue kept in culture was explored using specific immunohistochemical markers. Retinal explants were either kept under standard culture conditions or supplemented with glutamate and their morphology was compared with in vivo controls of corresponding age. After 15 days in vitro (DIV), E45 retinal explants displayed several signs of atypical development when compared with E60 in vivo controls. First, an accelerated photoreceptor differentiation was evident, seen in sections labeled with antibodies directed against recoverin, rhodopsin and synaptophysin. Second, apoptotic cells in the inner retina were more prevalent in the cultured retinas (TUNEL). Rod photoreceptor differentiation as well as inner retinal apoptosis was even more pronounced in glutamate-supplemented specimens in which they occurred already at 8 DIV. Müller cell, vimentin and GFAP expression was not affected in any of the cultured retinas. These results suggest that normal retinal embryogenesis is more dependent on tissue extrinsic factors than what has been deduced from previous small animal experiments. Glutamate, which has been identified as an important regulator of cell cycle exit, may also be important for photoreceptor differentiation and induction of developmental apoptosis. Insights into retinal cell type differentiation under in vitro conditions is of interest from a biological standpoint, and the possibility of modulation of this process is valuable for research directed towards cell replacement in retinal degenerative disease.
Originalspråkengelska
TidskriftDevelopmental Neuroscience
Tidigt onlinedatum2012 nov. 9
DOI
StatusPublished - 2012

Ämnesklassifikation (UKÄ)

  • Neurovetenskaper

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