It is well known that user proximity introduces absorption and impedance mismatch losses that severely degrade multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) performance of handset antennas. In this work, we experimentally verified the potential of adaptive impedance matching (AIM) to mitigate user interaction effects and identified the main AIM gain mechanism in realistic systems. A practical setup including custom-designed CMOS silicon-on-insulator (SOI) impedance tuners implemented on a MIMO handset was measured in three propagation environments and 10 real user scenarios. The results indicate that AIM can improve MIMO capacity by up to 42% equivalent to 3.5 dB of multiplexing efficiency (ME) gain. Taking into account the measured losses of 1 dB in the integrated tuners, the maximum net ME gain is 2.5 dB suggesting applicability in practical systems. Variations in ME gains of up to 1.5 dB for different hand-grip styles were mainly due to differences in impedance mismatch and tuner loss distribution. The study also confirmed earlier results on the significant differences in mismatch and absorption between phantoms and real users, in which the phantoms underestimated user effects and therefore AIM gains. Finally, propagation environments of different angular spreads were found to give only minor ME gain variations.
- Elektroteknik och elektronik