Despite the benefits of currently available preventative and therapeutic interventions, atherosclerotic vascular disease continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality in much of the Western World. This emphasize,,, the need for additional preventive and therapeutic interventions exploiting new targets to compliment and augment the results of LDL lowering and other current strategies. One such potential target is HDL and its apolipoproteins, A large body of experimental evidence suggests that augmenting the levels and/or function of HDL and its apolipoproteins can have major vascular protective effects ranging from prevention to stabilization and regression, independent of total or non-HDL cholesterol levels. Therefore, we think that the time is ripe for the development and clinical testing of this new frontier in antiatherogenic strategy. In the present article, We will review the structure/function of HDL and explore means of enhancing the levels and/or function of HDL and its apolipoproteins for vascular protection.